Show Notes Column
Date__
Date
Author__
Author
Contribution__
Contribution
Reference__
Reference
Category__
Category
Pathogen Class__
Pathogen Class
Details
Details
-50 Varro Postulated that invisible animalcules caused some diseases. Chase Causation General Details
30 Columella Speculated that fever may be caused in some way by marsh insects. Dowel Miscellany General Details
1000 Avicenna Probably recognized the presence of a worm in what became known as guinea-worm disease. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1010 Avicenna Wrote medical text that included mention of various parasitic worms. Campillo Miscellany Helminths Details
1150 Avenzoar Wrote a description of the itch mite. Campillo Miscellany General Details
1200 Anon. Described liver-rot in sheep, and the presence of a fluke. Andrews Miscellany Helminths Details
1347 Anon. Military attempts to spread bubonic plague illustrate belief in contagion. Waller Miscellany General Details
1379 Brie Recorded his observation of liver fluke in sheep. Touratier Miscellany Helminths Details
1546 Fracastoro Wrote that diseases were caused by invisible seminaria (seeds). Bullock Causation General Details
1646 Kircher Theorized that contagion was due to invisible living bodies. Chase Causation General Details
1650 Hauptmann Held that death results from invisible animalcules in body of humans and other animals. Wilson Causation General Details
1650 Langius Allegedly espoused idea of invisible living things as cause of syphilis. Kobler Causation General Details
1656 Borel Recorded ideas about "worms" in blood and decaying matter, but without evidence. Dowel Miscellany General Details
1658 Kircher Recorded remarks which some have taken to imply discovery of protozoa or bacteria. Dowel Miscellany General Details
1665 Boghurst Held that plague was caused by many minute corpuscles. Wilson Causation General Details
1665 Diemerbroeck Suggested that plague was a venom propagated like yeast, but in the air. Wilson Causation General Details
1665 Hooke Described a fossilized foraminiferan (large protozoon) in sand, and understood it as a microscopic life form. Bardell. Miscellany General Details
1668 Redi Showed that maggots did not develop in meat protected from flies. Grove Miscellany General Details
1674 Leeuwenhoek Observed and reported animalcules in lake water, and what were probably coccidian oocysts and trematode ova in mammalian bile. Foster Microscopy General Details
1675 Leeuwenhoek Observed and reported animalcules in rainwater, canal water, etc. Garrison Microscopy Protozoa Details
1676 Leeuwenhoek Reported existence of free-living microorganisms that were probably bacteria. Brock (1961) Microscopy Bacteria Details
1680 Leeuwenhoek Observed and recorded what were probably parasitic protozoa, in gut of horse-fly. Foster Microscopy Protozoa Details
1681 Leeuwenhoek Observed and reported protozoa (Giardia) and bacteria in diarrheic human feces. Foster Microscopy Protozoa Details
1683 Leeuwenhoek a. Reported the presence of protozoa and bacteria in the feces of frogs. Foster Miscellany Bacteria Details
1683 Leeuwenhoek b. Described microorganisms (probably bacteria) in the scurf of human teeth. Brock (1961) Microscopy Bacteria Details
1683 Slare Slare (also called Slear) linked animalcules, theoretically, to cattle plague. Dobell Causation General Details
1684 Abercromby Proposed that syphilis was caused by a parasite. Garrison & Morton Causation General Details
1687 Bonomo Reported parasitic (acarine) causation of scabies. Garrison Causation General Details
1698 Bidloo Reported eggs of liver-fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1699 Hartsoeker Postulated transmission of intestinal worms by ingestion of eggs shed in feces. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1700 Andry Published book arguing that all parasitic worms came from seed (eggs) in the exteral environment. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1701 Andry Proposed microbial causation of disease. Lee Miscellany General Details
1701 Rivinus Wrote that most diseases were caused by mites and minute worms (pathologia animata). Garrison Causation General Details
1708 Leeuwenhoek Observed and reported microbes in "fur" scraped from human tongue during fever. Dobel Miscellany Protozoa Details
1710 Joblot Boiled infusions remain free of microorganisms. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1718 Bradley Recorded specificity of blight disease of plants. Wilson Causation Fungi Details
1718 Lancisi Postulated a role for the mosquito (and perhaps animalcules) in malaria. Ackernecht Miscellany General Details
1720 Marten Marten (or Martin) published elaborate speculation that minute living creatures or animalcula may cause tuberculosis (phthisis). Wilson Causation General Details
1721 Bradley a. Recorded elaborate speculation on causation of disease by air-borne organisms. Wilson Causation General Details
1721 Bradley b. Postulated that parasitic worms must enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Wilson Miscellany Helminths Details
1725 Vallisnieri Espoused idea of animate contagion. Wilson Causation General Details
1727 Hales Suggested transmission of hop mildew by small seeds. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1728 duHamel Found fungus causing root disease of safron plant. Parris Causation Fungi Details
1733 Vallisnieri Reintroduced concept of living contagion. Wilson Causation General Details
1743 Needham Discovered that grains of smutty wheat consisted of masses of worms. Parris Causation Helminths Details
1748 Arderon Published illustration of superficial fungal infection on fish. Ainsworth Miscellany Fungi Details
1748 Needham Reported experiments in support of doctrine of spontaneous generation. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1755 Tillet Reported experimental evidence of the contagiousness of wheat bunt. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1755 Weszpremi Proposed prevention of plague by inoculation. Garrison Immunology Bacteria Details
1761 Astruc Reported, but dismissed, the theories of others concerning causation of syphilis by invisible living things. Kobler Causation General Details
1762 Plenciz Proposed living contagion with a specific verminous seed for each disease. Garrison Causation General Details
1766 Spallanzani Reported absence of animalcules in heated, sealed infusions. Grove Miscellany General Details
1767 Clarke Contagiousness of puerperal fever. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1767 Fontana Reported microscopic plant as cause of rust in wheat. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1767 Linnaeus Recorded parasitic nematode in wheat disease. Parris Causation Helminths Details
1767 Targioni-Tozzetti Reported microscopic plant as cause of rust in wheat. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1774 Jesty Began inoculation with cow-pox to prevent smallpox. Garrison Immunology Viruses Details
1775 Anon. Plant Virola sp. used by natives of French Guiana to treat thrush. Joyce Miscellany Fungi Details
1777 Scopoli Recorded parasitic nematode in cereal disease. Parris Causation Helminths Details
1781 Pallas Reported an attempt to infect dogs with tapeworm by parenteral injection of tapeworm eggs. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1782 Bloch Published detailed arguments in support of Spontaneous Generation for parasitic worms. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1782 Goeze Published arguments in support of Spontaneous Generation in parasitic worms. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1786 Wichmann Discussed parasitic origin of scabies. Garrison Causation General Details
1790 Abildgaard Reported tapeworm in ducks ater feeding them the intermediate host (fish) harboring the larval stage. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1791 Plett Used cowpox inoculation to prevent smallpox. Garrison Causation Viruses Details
1798 Jenner Reported the use of cowpox inoculation for the prevention of smallpox in humans. Brock (1961) Immunology Viruses Details
1799 Steinbuch Recorded parasitic nematodes in disease of grain. Parris Causation Helminths Details
1800 Anon. Many attempts in early years of Century to make achromatic objectives. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1800 Cruikshank Purified water by chlorination in England. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1800 Gooch Contagiousness of puerperal fever. Carter Causation Bacteria Details
1800 Jenner Published claim that cowpox vaccination had been validated and had the potential to eradicate smallpox from the world. Anon. Immunology Viruses Details
1800 Moreau Purified water by chlorination in France. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1800 Orth Proposed, in about this year, the contagiousness of puerperal fever. Carter Causation Bacteria Details
1800 Waterhouse Introduced vaccination to New England. Garrison Immunology General Details
1801 Baud Publicized organic concept of fermentation. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1802 Anon. British government ordered measures to protect welfare of factory apprentices. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1802 Anon. Gave dramatic example of epidemic devastation. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1802 Anon. Vaccination institute founded in Berlin. Anon. Immunology General Details
1802 Brown Vaccinated 500 people in Kentucky. McNeill Immunology General Details
1802 Pinel Published Nosographie philosophique. Bullock Miscellany General Details
1802 Thenard Described yeast-like substance in fruit juice fermentation. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1803 Anon. Doctors from Spain reached Mexico to teach vaccination McNeill Immunology General Details
1803 Anon. Offered prize for fermentation work. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1803 Winterbottom Described sleeping sickness in West Africa. Major Miscellany Protozoa Details
1804 Zinke Reported first experimental transmission of rabies from animal to animal (dog to rabbit). Norman Causation Viruses Details
1805 Anon. Used Jenner's smallpox vaccine on people near the Chinese border. Anon. Immunology General Details
1805 Napoleon Ordered vaccination of all troops. McNeill Immunology General Details
1806 Malthus Warned against smallpox vaccination. Garrison & Morton Miscellany General Details
1807 Anon. Doctors from Spain moved on from Mexico to Philipines to teach vaccination. McNeill Immunology General Details
1807 Anon. Royal College of Physicians (Britain) declared vaccination safer than variolation. Anon. Immunology General Details
1807 Anon. Vaccination made compulsory in Bavaria. Anon. Immunology General Details
1807 Prevost Reported that bunt or smut of wheat was caused by microscopic "spores" of fungi. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1807 van Deyl Made achromatic objective. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1808 Gaspard Began injecting putrid materials and body fluids into animals, causing acute disease and death. Norman Causation General Details
1808 Marzoli Began making achromatic lenses, using cemented doublets. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1809 Anon. Invention of canning for food preservation; sterilization without germ theory. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1810 Anon. Vaccination made compulsory in Sweden. Anon. Immunology General Details
1810 Appert Book on preservation of meat and vegetables by heating to boiling temperature in sealed bottles. Norman Miscellany General Details
1810 Frauenhofer At approximately this time, made achromatic objectives by combining achromatic doublets. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1810 Gay-Lussac Reported results of his studies on the chemistry of fermentation. Bullock Miscellany General Details
1810 Rudolphi Published book supporting spontaneous generation of parasitic worms. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1811 Brewster Suggested the use of gem stones in making simple microscopes, because of their higher refractive index. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1812 Anon. Pamphlets on vaccination distributed by Russian authorities to distant territories such as Samerkand. McNeill Immunology General Details
1812 Anon. The Society of Apothecaries unsuccessfully petitioned the British Parliament for the official recognition of midwives. Williams Miscellany General Details
1812 Parkinson Published first report in English of death resulting from a perforated appendix. Norman Miscellany General Details
1812 Wollaston Improved the simple microscope. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1813 Brewster Suggested immersion of front element of objective in the fluid in which the object is placed. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1813 Knight Suggested that mildew or rust of wheat was caused by a "minute species of parasitical fungus." Doetsch Causation Fungi Details
1814 Mease Reported observations on natural transmission of Texas Cattle Fever. Roncalli Causation General Details
1815 Mayer With Emmett, reported a fungal infection (apparently aspergillosis) in a bird. Rippon Causation Fungi Details
1816 Anon. In 1816-18 British troops carried cholera to Afghanistan and Nepal. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1816 Scholer Transmitted rust from barberry bush to rye by inoculation of spores. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1817 Anon. Cholera breaks out of India, due to new transport routes. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1817 Nitzsch Saw resemblance between cercariae and trematodes. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1817 Pelletier Isolated emetine as active alkyloid of ipecac. Norman Miscellany General Details
1818 Bojanus Observed that cercariae come from rediae within snails. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1819 Anon. Official is abused for diagnosing Yellow Fever. Rosenberg Miscellany General Details
1819 Bizio Said that red spots on corn mush were masses of microscopic fungi. Named them Serratia marcescens. Chase Miscellany Fungi Details
1819 Bremser Published book supporting spontaneous generation of parasitic worms. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1819 Melo Concluded that red spots on corn mush were not supernatural, but rather the result of fermentation. Chase Miscellany General Details
1819 Rudolphi Described larvae of Drancunculus. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1820 Anon. From this time on, glass slides of approximately 3" x 1" began to replace other bases for object preparation. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1820 Bancks Made an advanced simple microscope. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1820 Pelletier With Caventou, isolated quinine from cinchona. Norman Miscellany General Details
1821 Amici Made first effective achromatic microscope. Collard Microscopy General Details
1821 Anon. British troops spread cholera to S. Arabia, while trying to suppress slavery. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1821 Bretonneau Presented oral reports on the specificity of diseases such as diphtheria and typhoid. Bullock Miscellany General Details
1821 Magendie Used saliva of a human rabies case to transmit rabies to dogs. Anon. Causation Viruses Details
1821 Schilling Transmitted glanders to humans. Garrison Causation General Details
1822 Acerbi Reported his view that typhus is caused by parasites (hypothetical) multiplying in body. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1822 Anon. French experts studied Yellow Fever outbreak in Barcelona. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1822 Persoon Gave name "mycoderma" (fungal skin) to the "skin" formed on the surface of a liquid when vinegar is produced. Lechevalier Miscellany Fungi Details
1823 Magendie Reported lethal effect of putrid blood when given intravenously but not orally. Anon. Causation General Details
1824 Amici Made achromatic objectives, using the Selligue approach. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1824 Gaspard Published results (also in 1822) of injecting putrid materials (e.g., pus) and body fluids into animals, by various routes. Garrison & Morton Causation General Details
1824 Pritchard Made a lens of diamond (at the suggestion of Goring). Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1824 Selligue Designed objective consisting of a series of four achromatic doublets. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1825 Barthelemy Showed that anthrax was transmissible by inoculation in a series of sheep. Joklik Causation General Details
1825 Chevallier Made objectives of Selligue type, but with the flat surface of the plano-concave lens facing the object. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1825 Copland Used potassium iodide in syphilis. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1825 Goring Introduced the use of standard test objects for comparing performance of objectives. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1825 Labarraque Used sodium hypochlorite and other chemicals to prevent putrefaction of corpses. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1825 Louis Published important work on tuberculosis, but without knowledge of its etiology. Garrison & Morton Miscellany General Details
1826 Anon. New cholera epidemic out of India. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1826 Bretonneau Described and named diphtheria. Major Miscellany General Details
1826 Desmazieres Described and illustrated yeast cells (the Mycoderma spp. of Persoon). Lechevalier Miscellany Fungi Details
1826 Laennec Maintained unity of scrofula and tuberculosis. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1826 Smith Made achromatic microscope for Lister. Ford Microscopy General Details
1826 Tulley Made an exceptional microscope with an achromatic objective. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1827 Amici Produced improved objective by new approach (resulting from work begun in 1824). Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1827 Brown Studied the motion of microscopic particles of animal, vegetable and mineral origin. Asimov Microscopy General Details
1827 Desmazieres Considered yeast an infusarian because of motion. Lechevalier Miscellany Fungi Details
1828 Annersley Recognized and described amebic dysentery. Anon. Miscellany Protozoa Details
1828 Chadwick Wrote essay setting out what he later called his "sanitary idea." Chase Miscellany General Details
1828 Dance Reported experiments on the pathogenicity of putrid materials when injected. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1829 Alibert Described pustule d'Alep, the characteristic lesion of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Garrison Miscellany Protozoa Details
1829 Coddington Improved the simple microscope by reducing the spherical aberration, but at the cost of decreased aperture. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1829 Creplin Confirmed 1790 report that birds acquire tapeworm by eating fish harboring the larvae. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1829 Ehrenberg Began his study of microorganisms. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1829 Lister Published his mathematical principles for designing lenses with better correction of aberration. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1829 Louis Wrote on typhoid fever and gave it that name. Norman Miscellany General Details
1829 Rhind Opposed spontaneous generation of parasitic worms. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1829 Simpson Made first municipal water filter. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1829 Wollaston Improved the simple microscope beyond his advance of 1812. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1830 Anon. About this time the new achromatic objectives were making it necessary to use long microscope tubes. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1830 Anon. Beginning of rapid decline (1830 - 50) in status of American medical profession. Rosenberg Miscellany Bacteria Details
1830 Anon. Popularized glass microscope slides. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1830 Chevalier Improved the simple microscope. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1830 Ehrenberg Discovered Bacterium termo. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1830 Kaehler With Alms, discovered santonin for treatment of parasitic worms. Garrison Miscellany Helminths Details
1830 Lister Described mathematics of achromatic lens. Bradbury Miscellany General Details
1831 Anon. Cholera to Mecca at time of pilgrimage. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1831 Anon. Epidemic cholera in Europe. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1831 Henry Sterilized fomites of scarlatina victims by heat, 200 F. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1831 Mehlis Saw miracidia emerging from trematode eggs. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1831 Perkins Introduced high-pressure hot water for sterilization. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1832 Anon. Cholera carried to Ireland, then Canada, then U.S.A. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1832 Anon. Introduced British quarantine vs. cholera. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1832 Bigelow Promoted sanitary measures to control a major outbreak of cholera. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1832 Brown Used a single lens to observe the cell "nucleus." Anon. Microscopy General Details
1833 Anon. Cholera spreads from U.S.A. to Mexico. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1833 Bassi Reported evidence of infectious nature of silkworm disease (muscardine). Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1833 Cary Made microscope intermediate between simple and compound types. Ford Microscopy General Details
1833 Unger Published claim that parasitic fungi of plants arise from morbid sap. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1834 Bassi Demonstrated infectious nature of a disease of silkworms. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1834 Horner Reported that stools in cholera contained epithelial tissue sloughed from small intestine, but did not report seeing bacteria. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1834 Kutzing Apparently saw yeast cells and realized that they were living. Anon. Miscellany Fungi Details
1834 Remak Reported filaments resembling a mold in material from the favus variety of ringworm. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1834 Runge Isolated carbolic acid. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1835 Anon. Vaccination of infants made compulsory in England and Wales. Schreiber Immunology General Details
1835 Bassi Published fungal causation of muscardine of silkworms. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1835 Cagniard-Latour Reported the living nature of yeast. Garrison Miscellany Fungi Details
1835 Oberhauser Developed an improved drum microscope. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1835 Owen Described Trichinella spiralis in human muscle. Garrison & Morton Miscellany Helminths Details
1835 Paget Reported discovery of Trichinella spiralis in human flesh. Norman Miscellany Helminths Details
1835 Wollaston Made improved achromatic triplet lens. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1836 Cagniard-Latour Observed that beer yeast contained budding globules. Norman Miscellany General Details
1836 Donné Reported Trichomonas vaginalis in male and female reproductive tract. Norman Causation Protozoa Details
1836 Fliedner Opened hospital in Kaiserwerth, Germany, with religious deaconesses as nurses. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1836 Schulze Reported that the development of microorganisms in sterile organic matter can be prevented by chemical treatment of incoming air. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1836 Schwann Showed microbial nature of putrefaction. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1837 Amici Introduced the hemispherical front lens in the construction of objectives for the compound microscope. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1837 Cagniard-Latour Proposed that alcoholic fermentation was due to the vital action of the yeast. Lechevalier Miscellany Fungi Details
1837 Chadwick Reported average life expectancy of 45 years. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1837 Donné Reported further observations on Trichomonas vaginalis. Kean Causation Protozoa Details
1837 Gerhard Distinguished between typhus and typhoid (such clinical refinement later becoming helpful in establishing the germ theory). Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1837 Gerhard Made definite separation of typhus and typhoid, getting it accepted at least in the United States. Norman Miscellany General Details
1837 Kutzing a. Described and illustrated yeast cells, and proposed that all fermentations are vital processes. Lechevalier Miscellany Fungi Details
1837 Kutzing b. Reported connection between life in "mother of vinegar" and production of vinegar. Ainsworth Miscellany Fungi Details
1837 Kutzing c. Reported that yeast cells are pleomorphic. Bullock Miscellany Fungi Details
1837 Piorry Coined "septicoemie" (now septiemia) for putrid intoxication. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1837 Rayer Inoculation of glanders; shown to be contagious. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1837 Remak Saw fungal filaments in favus but did not consider them the cause. Lechevalier Miscellany Fungi Details
1837 Ross Began making achromatic microscope objectives by Lister's formulas. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1837 Schwann Reported role of living yeast cells in putrefaction and fermentation. Bullock Miscellany Fungi Details
1837 Schwann The development of microorganisms in sterile organic matter can be prevented by heating incoming air. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1838 Cagniard-Latour Reported (independently) role of living yeast cells in alcoholic fermentation. Brock Miscellany Fungi Details
1838 Ehrenberg Published major illustrated treatise on "infusoria," including protozoa and bacteria. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1838 Ricord Corrected John Hunter in showing that syphilis and gonorrhea are separate diseases. Norman Miscellany General Details
1838 Ross Made an objective that provided correction for the thickness of cover slips. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1839 Budd Proposed, in an essay, that typhoid fever was contagious and was spread by contaminated water. Cirillo Causation Bacteria Details
1839 Hake Published description of what were probably coccidial oocysts in rabbit liver. Dobell Miscellany Protozoa Details
1839 Lagenbeck Reported a cryptogamic plant (fungus) in human thrush, but did not postulate causation. Anon. Miscellany Fungi Details
1839 Owen Became first president of the Microscopical Society of London. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1839 Purkinje Introduced microtome, Canada balsam and other elements of standard microscopical technique. Garrison Microscopy General Details
1839 Ross, A. Introduced the "Lister-limb" construction of microscopes. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1839 Schonlein Reported fungus Achorion in favus of scalp in group of patients. Norman Causation Fungi Details
1839 Schonlein Separated and named typhus abdominalis and typhus exanthematicus. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1840 Anon. Achromatic objectives achieved major impact, 1830 - 1850. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1840 Anon. Microscopists used thin glass cover-slips to cover objects on microscope slides. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1840 Anon. Variolation declared to be a felony in Britain. Garrison Immunology General Details
1840 Buehlmann Rediscovered fungus Leptothrix [Leptotrichia]. Bullock Miscellany Fungi Details
1840 Carter Reported Streptobacillus monoliformis as cause of rat-bit fever. Lee Causation Bacteria Details
1840 Farr Promoted the "hypothesis" that epidemic diseases are caused by minute organisms carried from person to person by air. Chase Causation Bacteria Details
1840 Fry Founded a religious nursing order, which promoted hygiene, without knowledge of germs. Fisher Miscellany General Details
1840 Henle Propounded a persuasive germ theory but failed to find germs. Garrison & Morton Causation General Details
1840 Roberton Presented clinical evidence of the contagiousness of puerperal fever. Graham Causation Bacteria Details
1841 Berg Demonstrated the fungal etiology of thrush. Garrison & Morton Causation Fungi Details
1841 Dubini Discovered hookworm in miners. Norman Causation Helminths Details
1841 Dujardin Published major treatise on micro-organisms. Garrison & Morton Miscellany Bacteria Details
1841 Eschricht Wrote that asexual parasites such as Trichinella [muscle stage] must be regarded as immature or larval forms. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1841 Gruby Reported fungal elements in favus (tinea). Norman Causation Fungi Details
1841 Holmes Preached contagiousness of puerperal fever, and transmission by medical personnel. Magner Miscellany General Details
1841 Muller, J. Described psorospermosis. Anon. Miscellany Protozoa Details
1841 Valentin Recorded the presence of protozoa, now called trypanosomes, in the blood of fish. Garrison & Morton Miscellany Protozoa Details
1842 Bennett Reported the fungus Geotrichum infecting an old tuberculous cavity in a human. Anon. Miscellany Fungi Details
1842 Berg Found fungal agent of thrush (now Candida albicans). Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1842 Chadwick Issued major indictment of unsanitary conditions in British industrial slums. Norman Miscellany General Details
1842 Goodsir Reported bacteria in human stomach (sarcinae, i.e., Sarcina, Coccaceae). Garrison & Morton Miscellany Bacteria Details
1842 Gruby Described fungus as cause of "muguet" (thrush) of children. Norman Causation Fungi Details
1842 Muller With Retzius, found mold Mucor in lungs of owl. Bullock Miscellany Fungi Details
1842 Remak Used Schonlein's fungus to induce favus on self. Long Miscellany Fungi Details
1842 Steenstrup Published theory of Alternation of Generations, based in part on the life cycle of parasitic worms. Garrison & Morton Miscellany Helminths Details
1843 Busk Found adult Fasciolopsis in human intestine. Garrison & Morton Miscellany Helminths Details
1843 Dubini Reported discovery of hookworm in humans. Norman Causation Helminths Details
1843 Gruby Described the fungus Microsporum audouini in a type of ringworm. Norman Causation Fungi Details
1843 Holmes Proclaimed contagiousness of puerperal fever. Norman Causation General Details
1843 Klencke Obtained experimental evidence for the transmission of tuberculosis by cow's milk. Garrison & Morton Causation General Details
1843 Ross Introduced the "bar-limb" construction of microscopes. Ford Microscopy General Details
1844 Amici Made an achromatic objective with 1/7" focal length and angular aperture of 112 degrees (equals numerical aperture of 0.83). Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1844 Bassi Used calcium chloride as an area disinfectant to control muscardine (fungus) in silkworms. Lechevalier Causation Fungi Details
1844 Bennett Demonstrated the fungal etiology of thrush (mucocutaneous candidiasis). Rippon Causation Fungi Details
1844 Bennett Found mold in pneumothorax. Bullock Miscellany Fungi Details
1844 Danielssen Inoculated himself and others to show non-infectious nature of leprosy. Norman Causation General Details
1844 Gruby Found fungus, later called Trichophyton, in head infection. Bullock Causation Fungi Details
1844 Mayer Found mold, Mucor, in inner ear. Bullock Miscellany Fungi Details
1845 Berkeley Reported fungus as cause of potato blight. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1845 Budd Accepted parasitic cause of a liver disease. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1845 Donné Published engraving of first photomicrograph of a microbial pathogen. Campbell Microscopy Protozoa Details
1845 Dujardin Recorded the similarity between the scolex of porcine cysticerci and the head ot adult tapeworms (Taenia) from humans. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1845 Montagne Described and named fungus of potato blight. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1845 Siebold Published his conclusion that protozoa were single-celled animals. Anon. Miscellany Protozoa Details
1846 Berkeley Published fungal causation of potato blight. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1846 Eicksted Reported fungal etiology of pityriasis versicolor of human skin. Rippon Causation Fungi Details
1846 Leidy Found Trichinella larvae in pork. Campbell Causation Helminths Details
1846 Norbert Introduced test plate of ruled lines. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1846 Panum Showed transmissibility of measles. Norman Causation Viruses Details
1846 Rasori Recorded hypothesis that malaria is caused by parasites. Bruce-Chwatt Causation Protozoa Details
1847 Callender Reduced mortality from post-operative infections by instituting hygienic measures. Waller Miscellany General Details
1847 Danielssen With Boeck, published landmark treatise on leprosy. Mange Causation Bacteria Details
1847 Dempster Used spleen enlargement as index in assessing malaria endemicity in children. Bruce-Chwatt Miscellany Protozoa Details
1847 Fujii Described human syndrome known as Katayama disease, subsequently found to be schistosomiasis. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1847 Meckel Observed black pigment inside protoplasmic masses in blood of fatal case of malaria. Harrison Miscellany Protozoa Details
1847 Semmelweis Reduced deaths from puerperal (childbed) fever by instituting disinfection of physicians' hands. Norman Causation General Details
1847 Sluyter a. Found fungus Microsporon furfur (later Trichophyton) in skin. Bullock Causation Fungi Details
1847 Sluyter b. Reported Aspergillus infection in the human respiratory tract. Anon. Miscellany Fungi Details
1847 Sluyter c. Reported fungal etiology of pityriasis versicolor of human skin. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1847 Spencer Developed achromatic objective to a new standard of excellence. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1847 Tulasne Reported evidence of fungal causation of plant diseases. Parris Causation Fungi Details
1848 Berkeley Stated that many plant diseases are caused by fungi. Parris Causation Fungi Details
1848 Blackwell Advocated personal hygiene in disease prevention. Wilson Miscellany General Details
1848 Chadwick Masterminded passage of the Public Health Act in Britain. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1848 Nott Published papers often cited, inaccurately, as proposing insects as vectors of disease. Chernin Miscellany General Details
1848 Pasteur Discovered chirality of optically active compounds. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1848 Pollander Found bacillus in blood of animals dying of anthrax. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1848 Virchow With Frerichs, recognized connection between black pigmentation of internal organs and death from malaria. Bruce-Chwatt Miscellany Protozoa Details
1849 Brittan Reported fungus, erroneously, in cholera. Bullock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1849 Budd a. Reported objects thought to be fungus in cholera. Bullock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1849 Budd b. Reported evidence of link between cholera and drinking water. Doetsch Causation Bacteria Details
1849 Gros Observed amoebae around teeth in humans. Norman Causation Protozoa Details
1849 Nageli Lumped the colorless infusoria together in (a new?) group Schizomyces. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1849 Pollender Observed micro-organisms in blood of cows that had died from anthrax. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1849 Pouchet Reported animalcules (vibrios) in cholera. Bullock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1849 Snow Essays on cholera, stating that it is water-borne, and transmitted by mouth. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1849 Swayne Reported fungus in cholera (later discredited). Bullock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1849 Wilkinson Recognized the fungal (epiphyte) nature of a vaginal discharge (candidiasis). Rippon Causation Fungi Details
1850 Cohn Reported study on the pigment-producing (red) bacterium Monas prodigiosa. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1850 Davaine Saw bacillus in blood of sheep dead from anthrax. Long Causation Bacteria Details
1850 Fresnius Reported a fungus infection in the air sac of birds. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1850 Gillet Introduced the achromatic condenser lens. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1850 Rayer Reported elongated bodies (rods) in blood of sheep dead of anthrax. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1850 Semmelweis Published his use of a disinfectant to prevent human disease. Brock (1961) Miscellany General Details
1851 Anon. Debated contagion vs. miasma, at the first International Health Conference. Anon. Causation General Details
1851 Bilharz Reported discovery of a dioecious trematode (Schistosoma) in portal blood of humans. Garrison & Morton Miscellany Helminths Details
1851 Herbst Reported infecting dogs with Trichinella by feeding infected meat. Campbell Causation Helminths Details
1851 Kuchenmeister Infected foxes with Taenia pisiformis by feeding them Cysticercus pisiformis from rabbit. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1852 Bilharz Reported that hookworm was cause of Egyptian chlorosis. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1852 Kuchenmeister Reported infecting cat with Taenia taeniaeformis by feeding Cysticercus fasciolaris from mice. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1852 Perty Published work on microbes, with revised classification. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1852 Snow Argued for germ causation of cholera. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1853 Auzias-Turenne Advocated vaccination against syphilis, and stressed variation in microbial virulence. Williams Immunology Bacteria Details
1853 Cohn Reported observations on micro-organisms in drinking water. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1853 Kuchenmeister Reported infection of dogs with Taenia spp. after feeding them cystic tapeworms. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1853 Robin Described fungal parasites of humans and other animals, but did not fully accept their role in causation of disease. Rippon Miscellany Fungi Details
1853 Siebold Reported infection of dogs with Echinococcus after feeding them hydatid cysts from sheep. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1854 Bechamp Began study of the chemistry of sugar fermentation. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1854 Beneden Reported that feeding Taenia solium eggs to a pig resulted in cycticerci in muscles. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1854 Cohn Published book on microscopic algae & fungi; proposed that bacteria (Vibrionia) be classified as plants instead of animals. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1854 Graefe Reported an actinomycete as the causative agent of inflammation of the human tear duct (canaliculitis). Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1854 Griesinger a. Reported pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1854 Griesinger b. Reported hookworm as cause of fatal blood loss. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1854 Hassall Reported myriads of microbes in watery stools of cholera victims. Chase Miscellany Bacteria Details
1854 Kuchenmeister Reported tapeworm infection in a human following ingestion of larvae from pork. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1854 Mouart Published a report on the ancient Asian use of chaulmoogra oil in the treatment of leprosy. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1854 Pacini Discovered microorganisms in intestines of cholera victims and proposed causation. Chase Causation Bacteria Details
1854 Ridell Introduced a binocular microscope. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1854 Schroeder With von Dusch, reported that the development of microorganisms in sterile organic matter can be prevented by passing incoming air through cotton wool. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1854 Snow Reported epidemiological evidence of water as carrier of cholera. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1854 Whitehead Investigated cholera transmission and provided crucial support for Snow's theory of transmission by drinking water. Johnson Causation Bacteria Details
1855 Amici Exhibited immersion lenses, using water, glycerine or oils as the fluid medium. Bradbury. Microscopy General Details
1855 Gerlach Introduced ammoniated carmine as a histological stain. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1855 Humbert Infected himself with pork tapeworm, confirming cysticercus as infective stage. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1855 Pasteur Showed that crude alcohol from beet was not optically same as from molasses. Geison Miscellany General Details
1855 Pollander Reported micro-organisms in blood, and especially spleen, of cows dead of anthrax. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1855 Valette Reported infectivity of trematode cercariae following encystment. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1855 Wenham Made a much improved correction collar for cover slip thickness. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1856 Bettinger Reported (annomymously) the inoculability of syphilis. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1856 Hoegh Initiated an influential Leprosy Registry in Norway. Irgens Miscellany Bacteria Details
1856 Panum Reported lethal effect of injecting putrid blood, muscle etc. into dogs. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1856 Perkin Synthesized the first aniline dye (purple). Garrison Microscopy General Details
1856 Virchow Reported that "pigeon-handler's disease" is caused by a respiratory fungal infection (aspergillosis). Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1857 Brauell Using infected blood, transmitted anthrax from human to sheep, and horse to horse. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1857 Kuehn Found nematode parasitic in teasle plant (Dipsacus). Parris Causation Helminths Details
1857 Leuckart Described life cycle of Trichinella spiralis, a parasitic nematode. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1857 Malmsten Reported Balantidium coli as pathogenic in human intestine. Garrison Causation Protozoa Details
1857 Nageli Coined Schizomycetes (fission fungi) for bacteria and other micro-organisms. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1857 Nageli Described cells in silkworm disease as Nosema bombycis. Anon. Causation General Details
1857 Pasteur a. Claimed specific ferments as cause of particular fermentations. Carter Miscellany General Details
1857 Pasteur b. Showed that milk microbes make lactic acid. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1857 Speerschneider Demonstrated contagiousness of potato blight fungus. Parris Causation Fungi Details
1858 Bechamp Reported results of studies on fermentation of cane sugar. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1858 Brauell Reported further studies on transmission of anthrax in sheep. Carter Causation Bacteria Details
1858 Docker Reintroduced ipecac for dysentery. Garrison Miscellany Protozoa Details
1858 Hoegh Concluded that leprosy is contagious not hereditary. Mange Causation Bacteria Details
1858 Kuehn Published book on fungal diseases of plants. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1858 Pasteur Saw microbes in spoiled wine. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1859 Auzias-Turenne With Gilbert, infected patients by inoculating them with pus from secondary syphilis. Dracobly Causation Bacteria Details
1859 Bazalgette Began construction of major sewerage system in London, to reduce disease attributed either to stench or to water-borne agent. Halliday Miscellany General Details
1859 Brehmer Opened first TB sanitarium. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1859 Hartnack Began making water-immersion lenses. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1859 Homan With Hartwig, traced transmission of dysentery. Kobro Causation General Details
1859 Pasteur Expressed the opinion that the causes of contagious diseases are similar to the causes of fermentation. Vallery-Radot Causation General Details
1859 Pouchet Published book supporting concept of spontaneous generation, eliciting critical counter argument for germ theory. Geison Miscellany General Details
1859 Schacht Reported nematode as cause of serious disease of sugar beet. Parris Causation Helminths Details
1859 Virchow Infected dog with Trichinella and discovered the adult worm in small intestine. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1860 Carter Coined mycetoma for tumors caused by fungi. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1860 Delafond Studied rods found in anthrax, and tried to culture them. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1860 Lemaire Proposed treatment of wounds with carbolic acid to kill germs. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1860 Nightingale Founded Nightingale Training School for Nurses; opposed Germ Theory until her death. Fisher Miscellany General Details
1860 Pasteur Published major paper on role of living organisms in alcoholic fermentation. Lechevalier Miscellany Fungi Details
1860 Wenham Introduced a binocular microscope. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1860 Zenker Found overwhelming evidence that microscopic worms (Trichinella spiralis) caused fatal muscle disease in one case. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1861 Bary Established fungal causation of potato blight. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1861 Pasteur a. Reported that some organisms can live without oxygen (anaerobic fermentation). Carter Miscellany General Details
1861 Pasteur b. Published classic paper on germs in air. Carter Causation Bacteria Details
1861 Pasteur c. Reported that specific microbes are responsible for specific fermentations. Carter Miscellany General Details
1861 Semmelweis Published book on prevention of puerperal fever. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1862 Davaine Reported infectivity of helminth eggs. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1862 Delafond With Bourguignon, reported studies on newly discovered mites of sheep and rabbits. Touratier Causation General Details
1862 Leuckart Found beef tapeworm, Taenia saginata, in calves fed Cysticercus bovis. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1862 Mayrhofer Applied isolation and re-inoculation techniques. Carter Causation General Details
1862 Salisbury Attempted to show that fungi (molds in the environment) caused diseases such as measles and malaria. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1863 Bary Reported definitive study of fungal causation of potato blight. Parris Causation Fungi Details
1863 Bechamp Synthesized arsenilic acid, precursor of the antimicrobial agent atoxyl. Collard Miscellany General Details
1863 Bottini Used phenol as an antiseptic in surgery. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1863 Davaine a. Reported evidence of the bacterial causation of anthrax in sheep. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1863 Davaine b. Reported that anthrax blood was non-infective after heating at 55 C for 10 min. Geison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1863 Demarquay Reported the presence of filarial larvae in swelling of scrotum of human. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1863 Fresenius Used potato as a solid medium for microbial growth. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1863 Pasteur a. Reported that putrefaction is caused by organized ferments of genus Vibrio. Bullock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1863 Pasteur b. Published first report on wine spoilage. Carter Miscellany General Details
1863 Pasteur c. Wrote letter to Napoleon III expressing interest in finding cause of infectious diseases. Collard Causation General Details
1864 Bechamp Introduced the term "zymase" (now enzyme). Anon. Miscellany General Details
1864 Budd Demonstrate efficacy of disinfectants in control of typhoid fever. Cirillo Miscellany Bacteria Details
1864 Pasteur a. Associated a (vegetable) ferment with a wine "maladie". Carter Miscellany General Details
1864 Pasteur b. Lectured in opposition to theory of spontaneous generation. Geison Miscellany General Details
1864 Steinheil Introduced improved triplet lens for the simple microscope. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1864 Weber Reported results of injecting putrid fluids into animals. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1864 Wells Proposed that air-borne microscopic organisms cause post-surgical wound infecton and sepsis. Worboys Causation Bacteria Details
1865 Bohmer Introduced haematoxylin as a "dye" in microscopy. Ford Microscopy General Details
1865 Gamgee Advocated contagion-based control of rinderpest. Anon. Causation General Details
1865 Hallier Alleged fungal cause of diseases. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1865 Homan With Hartwig, traced transmission of typhoid. Kobro Causation General Details
1865 Huppert Published review on anthrax literature, claiming that Davaine had shown causality. Carter Causation Bacteria Details
1865 Lemaire Proposed carbolic acid as disinfectant for wounds. Bullock Miscellany General Details
1865 Leuckart Showed that pinworm (Enterobius) infection resulted from swallowing eggs of the parasite. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1865 Lister Began using antiseptic to prevent wound infection in surgery. Garrison & Morton Causation Bacteria Details
1865 Lowe Advocated contagion-based control of rinderpest. Anon. Causation General Details
1865 Pasteur a. Saw "corpuscular bodies" in silkworm disease. Bullock Miscellany General Details
1865 Pasteur b. Commented on anthrax vaccine of colleagues. Carter Immunology Bacteria Details
1865 Pasteur c. Presented oral paper on inhibition of microbial growt by pasteurization. Debré Miscellany General Details
1865 Powell With Lealand, introduced a binocular microscope suitable for high magnification. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1865 Simon Advocated contagion-based control of rinderpest. Bullock Causation General Details
1865 Simonds Advocated contagion-based control of rinderpest (cattle plague). Anon. Miscellany General Details
1865 Villemin Showed (1865-69) that tuberculosis was due to an (unseen) inoculable agent. Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1866 Brauell Argued that the literature opposed rather than supported bacteria as cause of anthrax. Carter Causation Bacteria Details
1866 Coze With Feltz, published first of a series of papers linking bacteria to putrid blood. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1866 Griesinger Showed that hookworm is a cause of disease in humans. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1866 Hemmer Reported results of injecting pus and other putrid fluids into cats and rabbits. Anon. Causation General Details
1866 Kolb Found bacteria in cholera stool. Doetsch Causation Bacteria Details
1866 Pasteur a. Published book on wine diseases. Carter Miscellany General Details
1866 Pasteur b. Reported transmission of silkworm disease by means of corpuscles. Carter Causation General Details
1866 Woronin Concluded (erroneously, because of knowledge then available) that bacteria in plant root nodules were pathogenic. Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1866 Wucherer Confirmed Griesinger's finding that hookworm causes tropical anemia. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1867 Buhl Saw microbes in diphtheria Bulloch Causation Bacteria Details
1867 Leyden With Jaffe, implicated microbes in sepsis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1867 Lister Reported use of carbolic acid to prevent wound infection in surgery. Brock (1961) Causation Bacteria Details
1867 Mercet Transmissibility of tuberculosis. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1867 Pasteur Reported that silkworm deaths were attributable to two diseases. Carter Causation General Details
1868 Beale Opposed germ theory on ground that microbes may be found in the lungs and intestiines of healthy people. Waller Miscellany Bacteria Details
1868 Chauveau Presented evidence for the particulate nature of the cowpox agent. Howard Causation Viruses Details
1868 Hueter Saw microbes in sepsis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1868 Keber Demonstrated the infectivity of vaccinia lymph after filtration, and observed objects of extremely small size. Anon. Causation Viruses Details
1868 Obermeier Discovered spirochaete of relapsing fever. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1868 Oertel Saw microbes in diphtheria. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1868 Tommasi With Hueter, implicated microbes in diphtheria. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1868 Villemin Published his evidence for the inoculability of tuberculosis. Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1868 Wucherer Reported the presence of filarial larvae in human urine. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1868 Wunderlich Reported on significance of temperature in disease. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1869 Drognat-Landre Published non-microbiological evidence for infectious nature of leprosy. Harboe Causation Bacteria Details
1869 Fedchenko Observed Dracunculus larvae in crustacean host. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1869 Gamgee Made erroneous pronouncement re babesiosis. Anon. Causation Protozoa Details
1869 Hoffman a. Used potato as solid medium for cultivation of microbes. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1869 Hoffman b. Reported use of vegetable dye (carmine) to stain bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1869 Huter Saw bacteria in fluid squeezed from a puncture in erysipelatous skin. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1869 Klebs Introduced hard paraffin (paraffin wax) for embedding objects in preparation for sectioning and microscopic examination. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1869 Oliver Did experiments (reported in 1870) suggesting that Taenia saginata is acquired by eating measly beef. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1869 Pasteur Reported two enteric ferments associated with the silkworm disease flacherie. Carter Causation General Details
1869 Salisbury Made insupportable claim that measles, typhoid and malaria were caused by fungi. Waller Causation Fungi Details
1869 Trendelburg Reported experimental infection of rabbits with diphtheria. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1870 Cramer Reported that granules in Beggiatoa are made of sulfur. Doetsch Miscellany General Details
1870 Fedchenko Reported the transmission of a nematode parasite (Dracunculus) by ingestion of an infected crustacean (Cyclops). Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1870 Klebs Introduced use of unglazed clay cells, connected to air pump, for filtering out bacteria. Waterson Miscellany Bacteria Details
1870 Langhans Reported erythrocytes inside leucocytes around hemorrhagic foci. Anon. Immunology General Details
1870 Lewis Saw amebae in cholera stools, and recognized that they were not the causative agent. Foster Miscellany Protozoa Details
1870 Nassiloff Saw microbes in diphtheria. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1870 Pasteur a. Published major book on silkworm diseases. Carter Causation General Details
1870 Sanderson Confirmed Chauveau's evidence for the particulate nature of the cowpox agent. Anon. Causation Viruses Details
1870 Winge Saw microbes in endocarditis. Bullock Miscellany General Details
1871 Bastian Reported his strong opposition to the germ theory of disease. Worboys Miscellany General Details
1871 Hansen Saw rod-shaped microbe in leprosy. Long Causation Bacteria Details
1871 Klebs Found that anthrax germs could be removed from a solution by filter. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1871 Oertel Infected rabbits with diphtheria by injecting tissue from human false membrane into trachea. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1871 Pasteur Began investigations on the fermentation responsible for the production of beer. Geison Miscellany General Details
1871 Recklinghausen Implicated microbes in sepsis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1871 Tiegel Reported result of filtering anthrax blood through plaster of Paris. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1871 Weigert Stained bacteria with carmine. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1872 Birch-Hirschfeld Reported that cocci injected into the bloodstream may be engulfed by leucocytes. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1872 Cohn Published book on bacteria, one of his many contributions to bacteriology. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1872 Cohn Saw microbes in sepsis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Coze With Feltz, published summary of work on bacteria and putrid blood. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Davaine Reported studies on septicemia and putrefaction. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Eberth Added to Davaine's already strong evidence for the bacterial causation of anthrax. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Eberth Saw microbes in diphtheria. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Eberth Saw microbes in endocarditis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Heiberg Saw microbes in endocarditis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Lewis Reported the presence of filarial larvae in human blood. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1872 Schroeter Reported his studies on the occurrence of pure cultures of microbes on the cut surface of boiled potatoes. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1872 Vulpian Supported findings of Davaine and suggested that septicemia could be called bacteremia. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1872 Waldeyer Microbes in endocarditis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Abbe a. Published new theoretical basis for image formation in microscopy. Introduced concept of numerical aperture. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1873 Abbe b. Developed a two-lens condenser ("illuminator") for use with his objectives. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1873 Budd Recognized contagious nature of typhoid fever, and proposed, on epidemiological grounds, a microbiological causation. Cirillo Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Davaine Reported the antiseptic property of iodine and other chemicals. Geison Miscellany General Details
1873 Hansen Saw microbes in lymph nodes of leprosy cases. Birch Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Klebs a. Saw microbes in sepsis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Klebs b. Tried (successfully?) to induce tuberculosis in animals by injecton of milk. Evans Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Klebs Described a germ, Microsporon diphtheriticum, as causative agent of diphtheria. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Koch Began work on anthrax; saw rods in sheep blood and evidence of spore formation. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1873 Loesch Described Entamoeba histolytica. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1873 Muller Suggested that bacteria, in nature, may convert ammonia to nitric acid. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1873 Murchison Traced a London typhoid outbreak to polluted milk, but did not accept germ theory of infection. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Obermeier Observed spirochaete of relapsing fever. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Rivolta Reported an organism in lesions of horses, and named it Cryptococcus farciminosum. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1873 Thaon With Grancher, supported findings of Villemin concerning transmissibility of tuberculosis. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1873 Tolles Designed and made a homogeneous immersion system. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1874 Anon. Vaccinaton of infants against smallpox made a legal reguirement in Germany. Schreiber Immunology Viruses Details
1874 Cohn Described what would now be called actinomycosis, in the lachrymal canal. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1874 Hansen Reported observation of a bacterium in leprosy. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1874 Jurgensen Argued that lobar pneumonia is infectious and caused by a specific agent as with typhoid. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1874 Panum Suggested that leucocytes played role in the body's defense against bacteria. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1874 Pasteur Argued that putrefaction was microbe-induced. Carter Causation General Details
1874 Roberts Noted that "most observers" recognized that the air carries large numbers of fungal spores. Anon. Miscellany Fungi Details
1874 Roberts Reported observations on antagonism between bacteria and microscopic fungi such as Penicillium glaucum. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1875 Anon. At meetings of the Pathological Society of London, the germ theory of disease was hotly debated. Foster Miscellany General Details
1875 Anon. Introduced "differentiation" to the staining of tissues. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1875 Brauell Observed anthrax bacillus in human. Schwabe Causation Bacteria Details
1875 Eberth Found bacteria on surface of human skin and in sweat glands and hair follicles. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1875 Feser Found bacteria in cattle blackleg. Stalheim Causation Bacteria Details
1875 Kelsch Saw malarial pigment in clear protoplasmic bodies as well as in leucocytes; did not recognize these bodies as parasites. Harrison Miscellany Protozoa Details
1875 Klebs Reported inconclusive evidence of the microbial causation of pneumonia. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1875 Koch Developed method for culture of anthrax bacilli, and observed complete spore formation. Brock Causation Bacteria Details
1875 Losch Reported amebae as almost certain cause of severe dysentery in a human. Ackerknecht Causation Protozoa Details
1875 McConnell Reported a new trematode, Clonorchis (Asiatic liver fluke) and described its pathogenicity. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1875 O'Neill Reported microfilariae (of Onchocerca) in human skin. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1875 Pasteur Claimed that ammoniacal urine was the result of microbial action. Carter Miscellany General Details
1875 Rokitansky Was first to show bacteria in lesions of endocarditis. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1875 Schroter Used potato as solid medium, and identified bacteria by characteristics of culture. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1875 Weigert Published comprehensive analysis of the nature of bacteria. Bullock Causation General Details
1875 Weigert Stained bacteria with aniline dye, "methyl violet." Long Miscellany Bacteria Details
1876 Anon. Exhibited the latest advances in the design of microscopes. Richards Microscopy General Details
1876 Bancroft Found adult Wuchereria bancrofti in a lymphatic abscess and in hydrocoel in a human. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1876 Bausch Began factory production methods for microscopes. Richards Microscopy General Details
1876 Bollinger Recognized infectious nature of actinomycosis. Rippon Causation Bacteria Details
1876 Cohn Found heat-resistant spore of Bacillus subtilis (published in following year). Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1876 Cohn Published major study of heat in the sterilization of various liquids and solids. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1876 Fuerbringer Reported that the fungus Mucor was an agent of pulmonary disease in humans. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1876 Klebs Published comprehensive theory of the bacterial causation of disease. Carter (see Notes) Causation Bacteria Details
1876 Koch a. Asserted bacterial causation of anthrax and demonstrated evidence in public. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1876 Koch b. Reported bacteria in local lymph cells of frog after implantation of infected tissue. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1876 Koch c. Used hanging drop method for study of anthrax bacillus. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1876 Koch d. Introduced the use of the white mouse as a laboratory animal. Brock 1999 Miscellany General Details
1876 Krishnaswami With Whitmore, described a bacillus in melioidosis. Lee Miscellany Bacteria Details
1876 Normand Reported Strongyloides (Anguillula) stercoralis as a new nematode parasite of humans. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1876 Pasteur a. Cultured an organism and used its "ferment" to make urine ammoniacal. Carter Causation General Details
1876 Pasteur b. Published book on the role of microbes in production of beer. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1876 Pasteur c. Sterilization by heat at 115 - 120 C under pressure. Collard Miscellany General Details
1876 Salomonsen Introduced a capillary-tube method for isolating bacteria from putrefying blood. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1876 Tyndall a. Reported antagonism between a mold (Penicillium) and bacteria in vitro. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1876 Tyndall b. Produced experimental evidence for the transport of microbes by airborne particles. Waller Miscellany General Details
1876 Weigert Saw microbes in sepsis. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1877 Bert Reported evidence allegedly refuting Koch's claim that anthrax was caused by a bacterium. Howard Causation Bacteria Details
1877 Bilroth Introduced term "streptococcus." Foster Miscellany Bacteria Details
1877 Burrill Reported micro-organisms as possible agents of disease in plants. Doetsch Causation Bacteria Details
1877 Cohn Reported that the hay bacillus has a heat-resistant spore form. Brock (1961) Miscellany Bacteria Details
1877 Harz Described actinomycosis in cattle. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1877 Koch a. Published powerful evidence of the bacterial causation of anthrax, and described life cycle of the responsible bacillus. Brock (1961) Causation Bacteria Details
1877 Koch b. Published the first photomicrographs of bacteria. Brock Microscopy Bacteria Details
1877 Koch c. Used water-immersion lens to study bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1877 Koch d. Made dry films of bacteria and stained them with methylene blue. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1877 Pasteur a. Reported microbial causation of anthrax. Carter Causation Bacteria Details
1877 Pasteur b. Reported that the anthrax bacillus was infective to guinea-pigs even when grown for many generations in the absence of blood. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1877 Pasteur c. With Joubert, reported apparent bacterial antagonism. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1877 Powell With Lealand, made water-immersion objective of 1/8" focus and numerical aperture of 1.26. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1877 Schloesing With Muntz, demonstrated that nitrate in soil was produced by "nitrifying" micro-organisms. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1877 Tyndall Reported that bacteria must have a heat-resistant form. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1878 Grassi With Parona, described life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1878 Grassi With Parona, reported that hookworm infections could be diagnosed in living patients by detection of eggs in fecal examination. Norman Miscellany Helminths Details
1878 Israel With Ponfick, described in humans what would be called actinomycosis, and isolated the agent. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1878 Koch Published evidence of bacterial causation of wound infections in various animals. Brock Causation Bacteria Details
1878 Lewis Found trypanosomes in blood of rat. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1878 Lister Reported detailed study of lactic fermentation in the souring of milk. Doetsch Miscellany General Details
1878 Manson Reported first insect vector of a human disease. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1878 Pasteur a. Confirmed microorganisms as cause of flacherie in silkworms. Carter Causation General Details
1878 Pasteur b. Described an anaerobic organism associated with putrid material and causing septicemia in animals. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1878 Perroncito Described agent of fowl cholera (later Pasteurella multocida). Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1878 Pettenkofer Appointed, while unsupportive of germ theory, to a chair of hygiene at Munich. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1878 Powell and Lealand With Lealand, improved on the achromatic condenser lenses that they had been making for some years. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1878 Stephenson Published proposal for homogeneous immersion. Ford Microscopy General Details
1878 Sédillot (Sedillot) Proposed "microbe" as a general term for a microscopic organism. Lechevalier Miscellany General Details
1878 Toussaint Extended Perroncito's work on the agent of fowl cholera (later Pasteurella septica); sent agent to Pasteur. Geison Causation Bacteria Details
1879 Abbe Advocated use of homogeneous immersion system. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1879 Afanasiev Suggested that malaria is caused by black pigment seen in the tissues of victims, perhaps of protozoal origin. Bruce-Chwatt Causation Protozoa Details
1879 Anon. Clarified "sepsis" and "pyaemia." Bullock Miscellany General Details
1879 Anon. Reported that most physicians had given up belief in Spontaneous Generation even before Pasteur's experiments. Carter Miscellany General Details
1879 Burrill Reported further evidence of microbial nature of disease in plants. Doetsch Causation Bacteria Details
1879 Galtier Reported transmission of rabies from dogs to rabbits. Geison Miscellany Viruses Details
1879 Klebs Inoculated syphilis into apes and probably saw the spirochaete. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1879 Koch Published classic paper on the "etiology of traumatic infective diseases." Brock Causation Bacteria Details
1879 Law Published Lung Plague, describing pleuropneumonia in cattle in U.S.A. Stalheim Miscellany Bacteria Details
1879 Leber Reported a case of mycotic keratitis, and described the organism in the cornea as Aspergillus. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1879 Manson Described fungal agent of a tropical ringworm. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1879 Neisser Extended Hansen's 1874 observations on germs in leprosy. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1879 Neisser Reported a micro-organism clearly associated with gonorrhea. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1879 Pasteur Isolated pathogenic staphylococci and streptococci. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1880 Abbe Designed binocular microscope. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1880 Anon. Oil-immersion objectives took over from water-immersion objectives for the most demanding microscopical work. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1880 Cohnheim Reported tuberculosis in rabbit eye following inoculation. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1880 Eberth a. Described germs in pneumonia. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1880 Eberth b. With Gaffky, reported bacillus as causative organism of typhoid fever. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1880 Evans Described the trypanosome agent of surra in horses. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1880 Ewart Said in lecture that leucocytes (and kidney) attacked inoculated anthrax bacilli in animals. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1880 Fowler Reported a clinical correlation between tonsillitis and subsequent rheumatic fever. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1880 Koch a. Reported role of specific bacteria in the etiology of particular dieeases (wound infections, sepsis and others). Brock (1961) Causation Bacteria Details
1880 Koch b. Discovered delayed hypersensitivity (cell-mediated immunity) in tuberculosis. Bellanti Immunology Bacteria Details
1880 Laveran Discovered agent (Plasmodium) of malaria. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1880 Manson Published further evidence of the mosquito as vector of filariasis. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1880 Pasteur a. Reported immunization by attenuation of a bacterium -- the agent of fowl cholera. Geison Immunology Bacteria Details
1880 Pasteur b. Reported germs responsible for boils and puerperal fever. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1880 Pasteur c. Observed agent of lobar pneumonia. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1880 Toussaint a. Reported immunization of cattle against anthrax by filtered-heated blood. Foster Immunology Bacteria Details
1880 Toussaint b. Reported immunization against anthrax by chemically attenuated germs. Geison Immunology Bacteria Details
1881 Aufrecht Probably saw tuberculosis bacillus. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1881 Bechamp Started publishing concept of microzymas. Anon. Causation General Details
1881 Braun Infected dogs with Diphyllobothrium by feeding plerocercoid larvae from fish. Anon. Causation Helminths Details
1881 Ehrlich Reported the utility of the basic dye, methylene blue, for staining acid-fast bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1881 Finlay Presented paper on his hypothesis that Yellow Fever is transmitted by mosquitoes. Anon. Causation Viruses Details
1881 Galtier a. Reported rabies transmission from dogs to guinea-pigs. Foster Causation Viruses Details
1881 Galtier b. Reported immunization of sheep vs. rabies by injection of saliva of rabid dogs. Geison Immunology Viruses Details
1881 Koch a. Published landmark paper on bacteriological methods, including solid medium for pure culture. Brock (1961) Miscellany Bacteria Details
1881 Koch b. With Gaffky and Loeffler: reported data that served as basis for successful autoclave procedures. Brock Miscellany General Details
1881 Loeffler Published formula for "nutrient broth." Anon. Miscellany General Details
1881 Ogston Reported cluster-forming germ as agent of septic abscess. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1881 Pasteur a. Reported immunization against anthrax by attenuated bacteria. Geison Immunology Bacteria Details
1881 Pasteur b. Carried out his famous public demonstration of anthrax vaccination. Foster Immunology Bacteria Details
1881 Pasteur c. Published reports on a germ that was probably the diplococcus of pneumonia. Sternberg Causation Bacteria Details
1881 Pasteur d. Reported transmission of rabies by intracranial inoculation of brain tissue. Geison Causation Viruses Details
1881 Sternberg Published studies on a germ from human saliva that caused septicemia in rabbits. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1881 Tappeiner Transmitted tuberculosis from human to dog by inhalation. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1881 Warington Confirmed nitrification by soil bacteria. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1882 Baumgarten Reported discovery of a bacillus in unstained tuberculosis tissue. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1882 Braun Infected humans with Diphyllobothrium by feeding them plerocercoid larvae from fish. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1882 Ehrlich Reported an improved method for staining the tubercle bacillus (and other acid-fact bacteria). Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1882 Friedlander Reported diplococci (pneumococci) in large numbers in lung sections taken at autopsy in cases of pneumonia. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1882 Hesse Introduced agar as solidifying agent for culture of bacteria. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1882 Koch a. Reported discovery of the tuberculosis bacillus. Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1882 Koch b. Reported, as an incidental remark, the value of agar in bacteriological media. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1882 Koch c. Used heat to get methylene blue into waxy envelope of tubercle bacilli so as to stain them. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1882 Leuckart Reported Fasciola in snail intermediate host, Lymnaea truncatula. Foster Causation Helminths Details
1882 Loeffler With Schultz, isolated agent of glanders (later named Actinobacillus). Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1882 Metchnikoff Reported the phenomenon of phagocytosis. Silverstein. Immunology General Details
1882 Ogston Introduced name Staphylococcus for germ found in clusters, like bunches of grapes. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1882 Pasteur a. Reported transmission of rabies by intravenous, rather than intracranial, inoculation. Geison Miscellany Viruses Details
1882 Pasteur b. Reported that some dogs could survive rabies and become immune to subsequent challenge. Geison Immunology Viruses Details
1882 Pasteur c. With Thuillier, reported agent of swine erysipelas. Bullock Causation Bacteria Details
1882 Talamon Reported at a meeting, the presence of diplococci in the lungs of pneumonia cases. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1882 Thomas Reported Fasciola in snail intermediate host (Lymnaea truncatula). Foster Causation Helminths Details
1882 Thuiller Demonstrated to German observers the effectiveness of Pasture's anthrax vaccine. Brock Immunology Bacteria Details
1882 Ziehl Used phenol (instead of Ehrlich's aniline water) with methyl violet for staining tubercle bacilli. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1883 Fehleisen Reported the causative agent of erysipelas, a chain-forming coccus. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1883 Garre Proved infectivity of Staphylococcus pyogenes for humans. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1883 Klebs Reported bacilli in the false membrane of diphtheria. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1883 Koch Discovered and cultured agent of cholera; confirmed and reported in the following year. Brock Causation Bacteria Details
1883 Koch Observed ameboid parasites in sections of intestinal ulcer and hepatic abscess. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1883 Loeffler Published firstl statement of Koch's Postulates, as guide to the establishment of disease causation by a mibroorganism. Brock Causation Bacteria Details
1883 Neelsen Modified Ziehl's method of staining tubercle bacilli. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1883 Pasteur a. With Thuillier, reported that passage of swine-fever microbe through rabbits decreased its virulence for swine. Bullock Miscellany General Details
1883 Thuillier Died of cholera in Egypt while trying to discover its cause. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1883 Wakker Reported the bacterial causation of Yellow Disease in hyacinths. Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Anon. Campaign begun to control bovine pleuropneumonia in USA. Stalheim Miscellany Bacteria Details
1884 Anon. Introduced first commercial autoclaves. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1884 Chamberland Described candle-shaped porcelain filter for ridding drinking water of microbes. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1884 Finkler With Prior, reported the presence of comma shaped bacteria in feces of patients with diarrhea (not cholera). Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Fraenkel Discovered agent of pneumonia. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Gaffky Reported confirmation of Eberth's claim for bacillus as germ of typhoid. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Gerhardt Transmitted malaria by injection Jaramillo Causation Protozoa Details
1884 Gram Reported improved stain for bacteria. Brock (1961) Miscellany Bacteria Details
1884 Kitasato Reported confirmation of "Nicolaier's Bacillus" as causative agent of tetanus. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Klein May have swallowed cholera bacteria to test causation of disease. Waller Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Koch a. Published "Koch's Postulates" governing the proof of disease causation. Brock Causation General Details
1884 Koch b. Reported that chlorine, bromine and mercuric chloride were good disinfectants. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1884 Koch c. Published 88-page work "The Etiology of Tuberculosis," expanding the demonstration of 1882. Brock Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Koch d. Reported discovery of the causative agent of cholera (now Vibrio cholerae) and its growth in pure culture. Brock Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Landouzy Recognized infectious nature of herpes zoster. Lee Causation Viruses Details
1884 Lichtheim Reported experimental infection of rabbits with Mucor spp. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1884 Loeffler a. Developed alkaline methylene blue as stain for bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1884 Loeffler b. Reported agent of diphtheria. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Loeffler c. Found agent of hog cholera. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Loeffler d. Reported probable causation of scarlet fever by streptococcal germs. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Metchnikoff a. Reported phagocytosis in Daphnia. Bibel Immunology Fungi Details
1884 Metchnikoff b. Reported phagocytosis in anthrax, and promoted cellular theory of immunity. Silverstein Immunology Bacteria Details
1884 Nicolaier Reported causative agent (bacillus) of tetanus. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Pasteur a. Reported attenuation of rabies by passage in monkeys. Geison Immunology Viruses Details
1884 Pasteur b. Vaccinated dogs against rabies. Anon. Immunology Viruses Details
1884 Rosenbach Isolated staphylococci in pure culture from wounds. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1884 Weeks With Koch, discovered the bacillus of pink-eye, later named Haemophilus aegyptius. Lee Causation Bacteria Details
1885 Arthur Provided final proof of bacterial causation of plant disease. Doetsch Causation Bacteria Details
1885 Babes With Cornil, reported antagonism between different species of bacteria, and speculated about therapeutic value. Collard Miscellany Bacteria Details
1885 Bunn Reported that cultures of Neisser's gonococcus cause gonorrhea. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1885 Cantini Attempted to exploit bacterial antagonism in the treatment of human disease. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1885 Carrion By self-inoculation demonstrated infectiousnes of verruga peruana, and its link to Oroya Fever (bartonellosis). Knobloch Causation Bacteria Details
1885 Escherich Discovered the enteric bacterium later known as Escherichia coli. Friedmann Miscellany Bacteria Details
1885 Ferran Attempted to control a cholera epidemic with an attenuated vaccine. Foster Immunology Bacteria Details
1885 Hansen Advocated seclusion of lepers, in Norway. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1885 Kitasato Made first pure culture of tetanus bacillus. Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1885 Loeffler With Frosch, found cause of foot-and-mouth disease. Lechevalier Causation General Details
1885 Mayer Demonstrated the contagiousness of tobacco mosaic disease. Lechevalier Causation Viruses Details
1885 Millardet Reported protective effect of Bordeaux Mixture (copper sulfate and lime) against mildew, Plasmopara viticola, of grapes. Anon. Miscellany Fungi Details
1885 Osler Suggested role of bacteria in rheumatic fever. Lee. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1885 Paltauf Reported disseminated fungal infection (mucor mycosis) in a human. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1885 Pasteur a. Tested a "therapeutic" rabies vaccine in humans with clinical rabies, obtaining equivocal results that were never reported. Geison Immunology Viruses Details
1885 Pasteur b. Conducted (and reported) trials of "therapeutic" rabies vaccine in humans during presumptive prepatent period of disease. Geison Immunology Viruses Details
1885 Power With Klein, reported that an outbreak of scarlet fever was caused by milk-borne streptococci. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1885 Roux With Yersin, first described antitoxins. Bellanti Immunology Bacteria Details
1885 Salmon Isolated enteric pathogen from swine. Norman Causation Bacteria Details
1886 Abbe Introduced apochromatic objectives. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1886 Bergmann Introduced steam sterilization. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1886 Buist Reported that he had seen and measured viral elementary bodies in lymph taken from a cowpox inoculation ulcer. Williams Causation Viruses Details
1886 Calandruccio Infected himself with Trichuris (whipworm) by ingesting eggs. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1886 Escherich Published monograph on micro-organisms of the normal intestine. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1886 Fraenkel Confirmed pneumococcus as cause of lobar pneumonia and as the salivary germ known to cause septicemia in rabbits. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1886 Golgi Described 2 species of the parasite (Plasmodium) that causes human malaria. Bruce-Chwatt Miscellany Protozoa Details
1886 Leichtenstern Infected humans with hookworm by giving larvae orally. Foster Miscellany Helminths Details
1886 Lindt Extended the work of Lichtheim showing additional species of Mucor to be pathogenic to rabbits. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1886 Ross Reported (per Manson) that early development of human malaria parasite occurred rapidly in stomach of mosquito. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1886 Salmon With Smith, reported successful immunization of pigeons against Salmonella by injecting them with heat-killed Salmonella. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1886 Weichselbaum Reported that pneumonia could be caused by more than one kind of germ. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1887 Arloing With Cornevin Thomas, showed inoculability of blackleg in cattle. Stalheim Causation Bacteria Details
1887 Bristowe Published major medical textbook, fully accepting the germ theory. Bynum Miscellany General Details
1887 Bruce Reported isolation of a micrococcus from cases of Malta Fever (undulant fever, brucellosis). Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1887 Chantemesse With Widal, published first differential media. Collard Miscellany Bacteria Details
1887 Garre Reported that a product of Pseudomonas inhibited growth of other bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1887 Hlava Confirmed Entamoeba histolytica as cause of dysentery. Imperato Causation Protozoa Details
1887 Kartulis Reported amebae in pus from liver abscess, confirming their suspected role in pathogenesis. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1887 Loeffler Reported immunity in guinea pigs that had survived experimental diphtheria infection. Foster Immunology Bacteria Details
1887 Loeffler Wrote more-or-less contemporaneous review of history of bacteriology up to 1878. Howard Miscellany N.A. Details
1887 Petri Described a dish particularly suited to Koch's new method of plating bacteria on solid media. Norman Miscellany General Details
1887 Weichelsbaum Isolated a bacterium (coccus) form patients with meningitis. Lee Miscellany Bacteria Details
1887 Weichselbaum Reported novel type of bacterium in post-mortum material from the brains of cases of cerebrospinal meningitis. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1887 Winogradsky Reported the metabolism of sulfur by Beggiatoa and other "sulfur bacteria." Anon. Miscellany General Details
1888 Abbe Introduced superior achromatic condenser. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1888 Anon. Pasteur Institute was opened in Paris, reflecting triumph of Pasteur -- and the germ theory. Geison Miscellany General Details
1888 Babes Reported a parasite in erythrocytes of cattle with disease (babesiosis). Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1888 Beijerinck Reported nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1888 Brieger Isolated microbial toxins. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1888 Bruce Reported experimental infection of monkey with Micrococcus (now Brucella abortus). Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1888 Chantemmesse Isolated bacillus of dysentery. Lee Miscellany Bacteria Details
1888 Gaertner Isolated and named Bacillus enteritidis (later Salmonella enteritidis) from an outbreak of gastro-enteritis. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1888 Gamaleia Discovered agent of fibrinous pneumonia. Garrison. Causation Bacteria Details
1888 Majima Described disease of human liver associated with eggs later shown to be schistosome eggs. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1888 Nocard Reported that farcin de boeuf in cattle is caused by an anaerobic actinomycete. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1888 Nuttall Reported that anthrax bacilli, if not too numerous, are killed by normal serum (from non-immune animals). Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1888 Pasteur Proposed deliberate microbial dissemination for control of rabbit populations. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1888 Roux With Yersin, reported that the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus of diphtheria produced a toxin. Silverstein Immunology Bacteria Details
1889 Abbe Produced (at Zeiss) an objective with the highest numerical aperture ever achieved: 1.63. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1889 Baillon Gave name Malassezia furfur to fungal agent of pityriasis versicolor and separated it from ringworm. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1889 Behring Studied antiseptic iodoform. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1889 Buchner Confirmed Nuttall's report of the germicidal action of normal (non-immune) serum. Garrison Immunology Bacteria Details
1889 Celli With Marchiafava, described the agent of malignant tertian malaria, Plasmodium falciparum.. Bruce-Chwatt Miscellany Protozoa Details
1889 Charrin With Roger, reported first evidence of specific antibacterial substance in serum of immune animals. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1889 Danilewski Described morphology and distribution of malarial parasites of birds. Bruce-Chwatt Miscellany Protozoa Details
1889 Ducrey Reported agent of soft chancre (chancroid). Ackerman Causation Bacteria Details
1889 Grassi With Rovelli, reported flea as intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1889 Kilborne Initiated trials in cattle to test cattlemen's belief in ticks as source of Texas Fever (babesiosis). Malone Causation Protozoa Details
1889 Kitasato Reported that tetanus is caused by Nicolaier's club-shaped, spore-forming bacillus. Brock 1999. Causation Bacteria Details
1889 Kitasato Reported utility of indole production in differentiating between bacterial species.. Collard Miscellany Bacteria Details
1889 Kitasato While working in Koch's laboratory, discovered the susceptibility of the mouse to tetanus.. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1889 Loeffler Isolated from sick laboratory mice the germ later known as Salmonella typhimurium. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1889 Pfeiffer Used cross-immunization of guinea pigs with two similar species of bacteria to show specificity of immune response. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1889 Smith Observed intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites in a case of Texas Cattle Fever. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1889 Winogradski Reported that some bacteria (autotrophs) can grow in medium containing only carbon dioxide and inorganic salts. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1890 Abbe Reported technique for the use of fluorite in microscope lenses. Bradbury Microscopy General Details
1890 Anon. Initiated a program to eradicate hydatidosis from Iceland. Anon. Miscellany Helminths Details
1890 Behring a. Reported, with Kitasato, first evidence that infection (tetanus) resulted in the presence in serum of substances capable of neutralizing foreign materials. Brock (1961) Immunology Bacteria Details
1890 Behring b. Reported evidence that diphtheria (like tetanus) induces protective antibodies (antitoxin) in lab animals. Brock (1961) Immunology Bacteria Details
1890 Gasparini Reported antagonism between various actinomycetes. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1890 Halsted Introduced rubber gloves in surgical operations, though not to prevent transmission of germs. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1890 Koch Announced, at a congress, his discovery of a substance capable of stopping the progress of tuberculosis in animals. Brock Immunology Bacteria Details
1890 Loeffler Developed method of staining bacterial flagella. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1890 Maffucci Isolated avian tubercle bacillus Bacillus gallinaceous. Lee Causation Bacteria Details
1890 Radam Self-published a book on cure of diseases by killing microbes (undisclosed method). Campbell Miscellany General Details
1890 Smith Introduced apparatus for visual observation of gas production during fermentation. Collard Miscellany Bacteria Details
1890 Winogradsky Isolated nitrifying bacteria from soil, confirming and extending work of others in a very significant way. Doetsch Miscellany Bacteria Details
1891 Cerqueira Described tinea nigra as a keratomycosis, thus noting its fungal etiology. Rippon Causation Fungi Details
1891 Councilman With Lafleur, described the detailed pathogenesis of dysentery and liver abscess caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1891 Ehrlich a. Reported methylene blue effective against malaria in humans. Lechevalier Miscellany Protozoa Details
1891 Ehrlich b. Distinguished between active and passive immunization. Anon. Immunology General Details
1891 Ehrlich c. Showed that even plant poisons elicit antitoxins. Anon. Immunology General Details
1891 Geissler With Wernicke, allegedly treated a diphtheria patient with antiserum (successfully). Collard Immunology Bacteria Details
1891 Klemperer Reported the production of a pneumococcal antiserum in rabbits and its trial in six humans. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1891 Koch Publlished hitherto secret compositon of tuberculin. Brock Immunology Bacteria Details
1891 Lister Arranged a symposium on bacterial immunity. Foster Immunology Bacteria Details
1891 Tizzoni With Cattani, described tetanus antitoxin as a substance, and introduced term antitossina (= antitoxin). Bibel Immunology Bacteria Details
1891 Wertheim Conclusively confirmed Neisser's gonococcus as agent of gonorrhea, and infected five men experimentally. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1891 Wolff With Isreal, grew fungus of actinomycosis. Bullock Causation Fungi Details
1892 Anon. Diphtheria antitoxin was first produced on a commercial scale (in Germany). Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1892 Anon. Eradicated bovine pleuropneumonia in U.S.A. Malone Miscellany Bacteria Details
1892 Behring Reported, with Wernicke, the ability of antitoxin to treat diphtheria in lab animals. Brock Immunology Bacteria Details
1892 Doderlein Described Doderlein bacillus in vaginal secretions in cases of puerperal fever. Lee Miscellany Bacteria Details
1892 Flick Started Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis. Chowder Miscellany Bacteria Details
1892 Iwanowski Reported that sap of plant with tobacco mosaic disease was infective even after bacteriological filtration. Lechevalier Causation Viruses Details
1892 Koch Demonstrated the value of water filtration in the control of cholera. Brock Miscellany Bacteria Details
1892 Pettenkofer Swallowed cholera bacteria in attempt to show that it was not a sufficient cause of disease. Magner Causation Bacteria Details
1892 Pfeiffer Isolated Hemophilus influenza (an agent of bacterial pneumonia). Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1892 Posadas Discovered agent of coccidiodomycocis, later named Coccidoides immitis. Lee Causation Fungi Details
1892 Roux With Nocard, began production of diphtheria antitoxin. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1892 Sabouraud Published first of his historic studies on dermatophytes as agents of ringworm. Ainsworth Causation Fungi Details
1892 Smith With Kilborne, published note on a microbial disease transmitted by arthropods. Katz Causation Protozoa Details
1892 Unna Described the different fungi of favus. Norman Causation Fungi Details
1892 Welch Reported discovery of the bacterial agent of gas gangrene. Ackermann Causation Bacteria Details
1892 Wurtz Used pH indicators in bacteriological media. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1893 Behring Developed, with Ehrlich's help, a practical and effective antitoxin for diphtheria. Brock Immunology Bacteria Details
1893 Berg Reported association between scarlet fever and streptococci and toxin. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1893 Buchner Reported that serum does not kill bacteria if it is heated to 56°C. Silverstein Immunology Bacteria Details
1893 Escherich Contributed to the development of a serological test for diphtheria. Friedmann Immunology Bacteria Details
1893 Haffkine Used an attenuated vaccine to control cholera in India. Bibel Immunology Bacteria Details
1893 Kohler Reported improved method of illumination for use in photomicrography. Anon. Microscopy General Details
1893 Leuckart Reported (per Manson) the presence of adult worms (Onchocerca) in subcutaneous nodules of human. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1893 Smith Reported a bacillus (later Erwinia) tracheiphilus) as cause of wilt disease in cucumbers. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1893 Smith With Kilborne, issued classic report on Texas Cattle Fever (babesiosis) including vector transmission. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1894 Anon. Built first cattle dipping vat in USA, for control of mites and, later, the tick vector of protozoan parasite. Malone Miscellany Protozoa Details
1894 Busse Reported isolation of a yeast (later Cryptococcus) from patient. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1894 Durham With Grunbaum, discovered agglutination of Eberth-Gaffky bacilli only in serum of typhoid patients, supporting the alleged causation of typhoid by the bacilli. Waller Causation Bacteria Details
1894 Ermengem Discovered Bacillus botulinus, agent of botulism. Ackerknecht Causation Bacteria Details
1894 Fischer Showed that bacteria have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1894 Gilchrist Reported a new skin disease caused by a yeast, later named Blastomyces dermatididis. Garrison Causation Fungi Details
1894 Gruber Observed, according to his own later account, the agglutination of cholera germs by antiserum. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1894 Kitasato Isolated bacterial agent of plague (Yersinia pestis). Ackerknecht Causation Bacteria Details
1894 Manson Published theory of malaria transmission by mosquito. Kean Miscellany Protozoa Details
1894 Migula Published important new classification of bacteria, but used only morphological characteristics (and motility). Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1894 Pfeiffer Eucidated action of complement and antibody in cell lysis. Bellanti. Immunology Bacteria Details
1894 Pfeiffer With Isayev, reported that cholera germs die in peritoneal cavity of immune, but not in normal, guinea-pig. Norman Immunology Bacteria Details
1894 Roux Issued influential report on diphtheria antitoxin. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1894 Roux With Martin, started producing antitoxin by immunizing horses instead of guinea pigs or sheep. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1894 Vincent Described organism in lesions of Madura Foot. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1894 Yersin Reported bacillus responsible for plague (Yersinia pestis). Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1895 Anon. Diphtheria antitoxin was used strategically on a community basis. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1895 Bordet Reported discovery of complement. Brock (1961) Immunology Bacteria Details
1895 Bruce Reported the tsetse fly as vector of the trypanosome that causes nagana in horses. Foster Causation Bacteria Details
1895 Danielssen Continued to believe, until his death in this year, that leprosy is hereditary. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1895 Denys With Leclef, showed that serum of an immunized animal enhanced the activity of phagocytes against the germs used as immunogens. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1895 Jager Confirmed the presence of Diplococcus in meningitis. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1895 Kleberg Began dipping cattle in phenolic baths to eradicate tick vector of bovine babesiosis. Roncalli Miscellany Protozoa Details
1895 Marmorek Reported the production of a streptococcal antiserum in horses. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1895 Metchinikoff Reported the clumping of cholera germs when guinea-pig exudate was added to cholera-immune serum in which germs were present. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1895 Smith Reported causative agent of infectious enterohepatitis (Blackhead) in turkeys. Katz Causation Protozoa Details
1896 Curtice Proposed program for eradication of tick vector of cattle babesiosis. Roncalli Miscellany Protozoa Details
1896 Dibdin With Schweder, devised sewage treatment by filtration. Garrison Miscellany General Details
1896 Durham Published note on agglutination of germs by antisera and its diagnostic potential. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1896 Gosio Reported product of Penicillium with antibacterial properties. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1896 Hankin Postulated a living entity (bacteriophage?) capable of blocking infectivity of cholera germs. MacGregor Miscellany Viruses Details
1896 Heubner Confirmed the presence of Diplococcus in meningitis. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1896 Lehman With Neumann, published major new classification of bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1896 Mikulicz Devised gauze mask to cover surgeon's nose and mouth to protect patient from germs. Richardson Miscellany General Details
1896 Morax Described Morax-Axenfeld bacillus as cause of angular conjunctivitis in human. Lee Causation Bacteria Details
1896 Smith Reported bacterial causation of tomato brown rot. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1896 Washbourn Reported exploratory trials of a pneumococcal antiserum in two cases of lobar pneumonia. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1896 Widal Described an agglutination test for the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1896 Wright Conducted research on a vaccine against typhoid fever. Garrison Immunology Bacteria Details
1897 Bang Reported the isolation of a small bacterium from the uterus of a cow during an outbreak of epizootic (contagious) abortion. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1897 Calmette Began collaboration with Guerin that led to BCG vaccine for tuberculosis. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1897 Durham Published full account of the use of specific agglutination to identify specific bacteria, and to diagnose diseases using patient serum. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1897 Ehrlich Published procedures for standardization of diphtheria antitoxin, and proposed a new antigen-antibody theory. Silverstein Immunology Bacteria Details
1897 Haffkine Tested a killed-bacterium vaccine for the prevention of plague. Foster Immunology Bacteria Details
1897 Kraus Reported precipitation when immune serum was added to culture of homologous bacteria. Silverstein Immunology Bacteria Details
1897 Kronig With Paul, published landmark work on disinfectants. Brock (1961) Miscellany Bacteria Details
1897 MacCullum Described sexual phase in life-cycle of human and avian malaria. Bruce-Chwatt Miscellany Protozoa Details
1897 Ogata With Simond, showed that flea was vector of plague. Lee Miscellany Bacteria Details
1897 Pfeiffer Reported killed-bacteria vaccine for typhoid fever, just one year after Wright's vaccine. Lechevalier Immunology Bacteria Details
1897 Ross Reported observation of malaria parasite in mosquito that had been fed on an infected human. Foster Miscellany Protozoa Details
1897 Smith Reported bacterial causation of black rot of cabbage, and bean blight. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1897 Triboulet Isolated streptococci from patients with acute rheumatism. Lee Miscellany Bacteria Details
1897 Wright Used heat-killed typhoid bacilli to vaccinate people against typhoid fever. Garrison Immunology Bacteria Details
1898 Arloing Introduced seroagglutination test for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Lee Immunology Bacteria Details
1898 Beijerinck a. Published ground-breaking report on infectivity of agent of Tobacco Mosaic Disease after bacteriological filtration. Waterson Causation Viruses Details
1898 Beijerinck b. Suggested a link between virus and cancer. Anon. Miscellany Viruses Details
1898 Belfanti With Carbone, reported immune hemolysis. Silverstein Immunology Bacteria Details
1898 Bignami With others, described life cycle of malaria parasites in humans and mosquitoes. Foster Miscellany Protozoa Details
1898 Bordet Reported immunological lysis of erythrocytes. Bibel Immunology General Details
1898 Councilman With colleagues, published major report on cerebro-spinal meningitis. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1898 Durham a. Reported results of investigating outbreaks of "meat poisoning." Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1898 Durham b. Introduced tubes that could be placed inside test tubes to measure gas produced by bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1898 Koch Described Theileria parva, agent of East Coast Fever in cattle. Anon. Causation Protozoa Details
1898 Loeffler With Frosch, reported filterable germ (virus) as agent of animal disease. Brock Causation Viruses Details
1898 Loos Reported that hookworm infect host by larval penetration of skin. Grove Causation Helminths Details
1898 Nocard Reported that bovine pleuro-pneumonia was caused by a filterable agent, now Mycoplasma mycoides. Garrison Causation Bacteria Details
1898 Pfeiffer With Marx, reported first evidence that antibodies are produced in particular organs. Anon. Immunology General Details
1898 Ross Reported (per Manson) transmission of bird malaria from mosquito to bird and bird to mosquito. Foster Miscellany Protozoa Details
1898 Schenck Reported a fungus (resembling a "sporotricha") in a human disease later termed sporotrichosis. Garrison Causation Fungi Details
1898 Shiga Reported bacillus as agent of dysentery, naming it Bacillus dysenteriae (now Shigella). Lechevalier Causation Bacteria Details
1898 Simond Demonstrated transmission of bubonic plague by flea. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1898 Smith Reported bacterial causation of maize wilt. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1898 Smith Showed that human and bovine tubercle bacilli were different strains of the same organism. Lechevalier Miscellany Bacteria Details
1898 Vincent Found spirochaete in throat of patients with what was later called Vincent's Angina. Garrison Miscellany Bacteria Details
1899 Anon. Reported an outbreak of microbial "meat poisoning" (salmonellosis) in Belgium. Anon. Causation Bacteria Details
1899 Anon. Reported the start of a war that would, for last time, have more germ-caused than bullet-caused casualties. McNeill Miscellany General Details
1899 Bancroft Suggested transmission of filariasis by bite of mosquito. Grove Miscellany Helminths Details
1899 Celli Obtained evidence that malaria could be prevented by keeping mosquitos out of dwellings. Foster Miscellany Protozoa Details
1899 Deutsch Reported that removal of spleen of guinea pigs reduced the level of antibodies in blood. Anon. Immunology Bacteria Details
1899 Emmerich With Low, used by-product of bacterium (Pseudomonas) in attempt to alleviate diphtheria by immune enhancement. Collard Immunology Bacteria Details
1899 Grassi With Bignami, reported that human malarial parasistes develop only in Anopheles mosquito. Garrison Miscellany Protozoa Details
1899 Rogers Showed that tabanid fly was vector of trypanosomiasis (surra) in horses. Foster Causation Protozoa Details
1899 Smith Reviewed the literature on bacterial diseases of plants. Doetsch Causation Bacteria Details
1900 Anon. The causative agents of 9 human microbial diseases were known. Anon. Causation General Details
1900 Durham Reviewed pathogenic and commensal enteric bacteria. Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1900 Ehrlich Revised the theoretical basis of immuno-serology. Anon. Immunology General Details
1900 Hekton With Perkins, reported isolation of a fungus from a lesion on a human finger. Anon. Causation Fungi Details
1900 Hunter Introduced (or popularized) gauze face-mask to minimize wound infection in surgery.. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1900 MacConkey Published first solid differential medium for microbiology. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1900 Manson Arranged two demonstrations of the role of anopheline mosquito in malarial transmission. Foster. Miscellany Protozoa Details
1900 Neuberg Reported that yeast ferments glucose to make ethanol in a series of biochemical steps. Anon. Miscellany General Details
1900 Reed Headed the commission that demonstrated the correctness of Finlay's hypothesis that mosquito was vector of Yellow Fever. Lechevalier Causation Viruses Details
1900 Reed With Vaughan and Shakespeare, reported that people may harbor, and disseminate, the bacillus of typhoid fever without themselves becoming ill. Cirillo Miscellany Bacteria Details
1900 Schottmueller Introduced the name Bacillus paratyphosus (later Salmonella paratyphi). Anon. Miscellany Bacteria Details
1900 Wright Began to investigate the use of bacterial vaccines, not for prevention, but for cure. Foster Immunology Bacteria Details
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