|Contribution||Proposed, in an essay, that typhoid fever was contagious and was spread by contaminated water.|
|Notes||William Budd did not know the (microbial) nature of the contagion, but based his opinion on first-hand clinical experience and epidemiological reasoning. The essay was made known to others but not formally published. His thesis was further developed in papers published in 1859 and in a monograph published in 1873. It was later shown that, while fecal contamination of drinking water is an important factor in transmission, person-to-person contact and contamination of premises, foods, etc., are often of greater importance. See Cirillo, V.J., J. Hist. Med.55: 363-397, 2000.|
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