|Contribution||Opened hospital in Kaiserwerth, Germany, with religious deaconesses as nurses.|
|Notes||An attempt to improve the standard of nursing during the period when hygiene was widely advocated but lacked the scientific underpinning that would soon be provided by the Germ Theory. The quality of nursing at Kaiserwerth may have been questionable, but the religious motivation and devotion of its members influenced other reformers, including Fry and Nightingale.|
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